In recent years there has been a great deal of discussion in the UK press about zero-hours contracts and how they are used to exploit workers. It is rare to find a positive word and there have been calls for such contracts to be banned.
Yet the majority of people do not even know what a zero-hours contract is. And many of those who actually work on such a basis are quite happy to continue. So what is the truth and should you consider offering zero-hours contracts to your employees?
In my many years of working in Human Resources, I have seen examples of zero-hours contracts which work extremely well for all parties. I have also seen evidence of exploitation. The devil, as they say, is in the detail. As with all things that involve people, the key is common sense, flexibility and good intentions. Where those factors are brought into play, this type of employment contract can work really well.
By the end of this article you will understand what is involved in zero-hours contracts. You will know the advantages and disadvantages of using them and what the changing legal picture around them looks like.
What is a zero hours contract?
There is no legal definition of a zero-hours contract. It is just a contract between a business and a worker which outlines how the work is done. So for employees it is an employment contract, but unlike other contracts of employment it does not specify a number of hours to be worked.
Typically, such a contract is offered where work fluctuates and an employer cannot anticipate how many hours per week might be needed. So in some weeks there is a need for, say, 37 hours (a full-time week) and other weeks might only require a few hours – or even none at all.
The benefit (and sometimes disadvantage) of such an arrangement is that there is no guarantee of any paid work at all in any given week. For the employer, the benefit is that they only have to pay for work when it is needed. For the worker, the advantage is that they can fit work around other commitments. This type of contract is popular with students who can work and still find time for their studies. Some parents of young children or people with caring responsibilities like these contracts. It means they can manage work to fit around family or other commitments.
The agreement between the two parties is that the business may ask an individual to work for them, but there is no minimum number of set contracted hours. The contract states what the individual will be paid if they do any work. It also covers what will happen when they turn down any work that is offered. There is a statement about what will happen if there is a change or cancellation of the work.
What are the advantages of a zero-hours contract?
If care is taken with introducing a zero-hours contract, it can be a working arrangement which works successfully for everyone.
For those who have read any of my previous articles, you will know that my first advice is always to consult with your employees . If you have the kind of fluctuating work which would lend itself to this type of contract, then talk to the individual(s) concerned. You can agree what might work for them as well as for your business. Beware, though, that this type of contract is not suitable for everyone.
Some people value the flexibility which allows them to balance work with studying or with caring responsibilities or other commitments. But there are other ways of providing such flexibility. In addition, there are other considerations with regard to things such as mortgages and other personal financial commitments. Where possible, you should accommodate the hours which individuals tell you they need to be able to work. This will lead to a happier workforce.
For some workers, this might not be the only job they have. They use it as a way to top up their income without having to commit to a specific number of hours per week. For others, it may be a way to gain experience in a specific type of job or industry.
Why are zero-hours contracts not suitable in some cases?
If you want to use zero-hours contracts, then you must ensure that you provide a contract which details what the payment will be for any hours that are worked. You must also agree and specify what will happen when work is cancelled at short notice.
Someone may have to make specific arrangements in order to be able to do the work on offer (childcare, for example). It can be costly and difficult if the work is cancelled with little notice. It is sensible to agree between you what is workable notice and what is not. Where the notice you can give is shorter than the notice period agreed in the contract, then you may want to agree to pay compensation. Whatever you do agree with an individual, this must then be spelled out in a written contract. That will avoid any conflict at a later date and will help to give the worker some confidence in the arrangement.
For some people, the variability of the work and thus the earnings can cause financial hardship and contribute to stress and anxiety. Where people have financial commitments, mortgages, loans, etc, they need to have a regular income and zero-hours contracts cannot supply that. They may also need to show regular hours in order to be able to access such financial arrangements. You should discuss these things with individuals prior to agreeing a zero-hours contract. That will help to ensure that they have taken these factors into consideration. A failure to do this can contribute to mental health issues, such as stress, depression or anxiety.
Things to consider when implementing a zero-hours contract arrangement
There are some things which any good employer will consider before implementing such a contract:
- Think about the nature of the work you have on offer and how it fluctuates. Will this be a short-term issue, or do you need a longer solution? Does the type of work lend itself to being carried out on this type of contract? Does the work have to be done by a specific deadline? Are there other types of flexible working arrangements or employment practices which might suit this type of work?
- Consult with the individual(s) who will be impacted. Does this type of arrangement work for them? Have they thought about financial implications? Do they need to have a guaranteed minimum number of hours? How much notice do they need for some work to be offered? How much notice should you give if you need to cancel the requirement to work, or change the number of hours?
- Consider the employment status of the individual. Will they be an employee of your business? Or will they be self-employed and providing work and invoicing direct or through a third-party? Can they refuse work offered? What happens if they want to do some work for other people? Can they provide a substitute if they are not available? Will they provide their own equipment and tools?
Other things to think about
- Make sure the contract is clear about the agreed terms, particularly the employment status, the payment due and any cancellation agreements. If you agree a minimum number of hours, then you must specify that. You must also include provision about the obligation or otherwise to accept work offered.
- If you intend that the worker will be an employee of the Company, then you are required to provide an employment contract which includes terms and conditions of employment in line with other employees.
- It is helpful for you to regularly review the situation with the employee. This is a chance to decide whether the employment relationship has changed and whether the arrangements still work for both parties. Such review should be on an annual basis, at least.
- You may need to provide training to line managers to ensure they understand the implications of zero-hours contracts. They need to know how to manage the work and the individuals who are contracted to do the work.
- You should ensure that people doing the same job, whatever their employment status, are paid comparable rates of pay.
The changing legal picture
Since 2015, if someone is employed under a zero-hours contract, then it is against the law for their employer to prevent them from working elsewhere. So an employer cannot include a clause in a zero-hours contract which excludes the person from working somewhere else.
In July 2017, the Taylor review on modern working practices was published and the UK Government has issued its response. Many of the recommendations have been accepted by the government and some are currently under consultation.
The two major proposed changes with regard to zero-hours contracts are:
- To give workers, including those on zero-hours contracts, the right to request a more predictable contract;
- The possibility of paying a higher National Minimum Wage and National Living Wage for hours which are not guaranteed as part of the contract.
Beneficial for business
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) in UK has called for zero-hours contracts to be banned. One of the reasons cited is that their research shows that most workers on zero-hours contracts feel exploited and want to be able to work more hours on more stable contracts.
Since 2017, the fast food chain McDonald’s has offered its UK workers the option to move from zero-hours contracts. Workers can move to fixed contracts with a minimum number of guaranteed hours per week. McDonald’s has offered this change because some of their staff complained that they had difficulty in some financial arrangements because they lacked guaranteed employment.
McDonald’s ran a trial across some of their sites, but 80 per cent of workers in the trial chose to remain on their current contracts. This is in contrast to the TUC findings above. McDonald’s now offer employees the choice.
The benefit to McDonald’s has been an increase in employee satisfaction. They believe this is because they consulted with staff about their hours.